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Sand Mould Making Procedure

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Sand Mould Making Procedure
Latest company news about Sand Mould Making Procedure

Casting is one of the earliest metal-shaping methods known to human beings. It generally means pouring molten metal into a refractory mould with a cavity of the shape to be made, and allowing it to solidify. When solidified, the desired metal object is taken out from the refractory mould either by breaking the mould or by taking the mould apart. The solidified object is called casting.


1. Advantages and Limitations

The casting process is extensively used in manufacturing because of its many advantages. Molten material flows into any small section in the mould cavity and as such, any intricate shape--internal or external--can be made with the casting process. It is possible to cast practically any material be it ferrous or non-ferrous. Further, the necessary tools required for casting moulds are very simple and inexpensive. As a result, for trial production or production of a small lot, it is an ideal method. It is possible in casting process, to place the amount of material where it is exactly required. As a result weight reduction in design can be achieved. Castings are generally cooled uniformly from all sid and therefore they are expected to have no directional properties. There are certain metals and allot which can only be processed by casting and not by any other process like forging because of the metallurgical considerations. Castings of any size and weight, even up to 200 tons can be made.


However, the dimensional accuracy and surface finish achieved by normal sand-casting process would not be adequate for final application in many cases. To take these cases into consideration, some special castin processes such as diecasting. Also, the sand-casting process is labour intensive to some extent and therefore many improvements are aimed at it, such as machine moulding and foundry mechanization. With some materials it is often difficult to remove defects arising out of the moisture present in sand castings.


2. Sand Mould Making Procedure

The procedure for making a typical sand mould is described in the following steps


First, a bottom board is placed either on the moulding platform or on the floor, making the surface even. The drag moulding flask is kept upside down on the bottom board along with the drag part of the pattern at the centre of the flask on the board. There should be enough clearance between the pattern and the walls of the flask which should be of the order of 50 to 100 mm. Dry facing sand is sprinkled over the board and pattern to provide a nonsticky layer. Freshly prepared moulding sand of requisite quality is now poured into the drag and on the pattern to a thickness of 30 to 50 mm. The rest of the drag flask is completely filled with the backup sand and uniformly rammed to compact the sand. The ramming of the sand should be done properly so as not to compact it too hard, which makes the escape of gases difficult, nor too loose, so that the mould would not have enough strength. After the ramming is over, the excess sand in the flask is completely scraped using a flat bar to the level of the flask edges.


Now, with a vent wire, which is a wire of 1-to 2-mm diameter with a pointed end, vent holes are made in the drag to the full depth of the flask as well as to the pattern to facilitate the removal of gases during casting solidification. This completes the preparation of the drag.


The finished drag flask is now rolled over to the bottom board exposing the pattern. Using a slick, the edges of sand around the pattern is repaired and the cope half of the pattern is placed over the drag pattern, aligning it with the help of dowel pins. The cope flask on top of the drag is located aligning again with the help of the pins. The dry parting sand is sprinkled all over the drag and on the pattern


A sprue pin for making the sprue passage is located at a small distance of about 50 mm from the pattern. Also,ariser pin if required is kept at an appropriate place and freshly prepared moulding sand similar to that of the drag along with the backing sand is sprinkled. The sand is thoroughly rammed, excess sand scraped and vent holes are made all over in the cope as in the drag.


The sprue pin and the e riser pin are carefully withdrawn from the flask. Later, the pouring basin is cut near the top of the sprue. The cope is separated from the drag and any loose sand on the cope and drag interface of the drag is blown off with the help of bellows. Now, the cope and the drag pattern halves are withdrawn by using the draw spikes and rapping the pattern all around to slightly enlarge the mould cavity so that the mould walls are not spoiled by the withdrawing pattern. The runners and the gates are cut in the mould carefully without spoiling the mould. Any excess or loose sand found in the runners and mould cavity is blown away using the bellows. Now, the facing sand in the form of a paste is applied all over the mould cavity and the runners, which would give the finished casting a good surface finish.


A dry sand core is prepared using a core box. After suitable baking, it is placed in the mould cavity. The cope is replaced on the drag taking care of the alignment of the two by means of the pins. A suitable weight is kept on the cope to take care of the upward metallostatic force during the pouring of molten metal.


Pub Time : 2024-05-05 21:43:21 >> News list
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